Stephen G. Gross

Assistant Professor of History, European and Mediterranean Studies

University of California, Berkeley, PhD 2010; University of California, Berkeley MA 2006; University of Virginia BA in History and Economics 2002 (with distinction).

Office Address: 

Room 612, King Juan Carlos Center (53 Washington Square South)





Personal Homepage:

Field of Study: 

Modern Europe

Research Interests: 

Modern Germany; European Unification; Economic History and Political Economy; International Relations; Energy Policy; World War I and II;

Curriculum Vitae

Research Description:

My first book project—Export Empire: German Soft Power in Southeastern Europe, 1890–1945—explores the relationship between imperialism, economic development, and cultural exchange from the perspective of non-state actors such as trade fairs, research institutes, and professional exchange programs. It traces how German business leaders and academics established commercial hegemony in Southeastern Europe during the 1920s and 1930s. Where scholars have used the concept of soft power to describe the foreign policy of liberal states, I conclude that authoritarian Nazi Germany was also able to exercise its own type of soft power, so long as its private institutions retained the space to operate in the interstices of state power.

My second book project is just now getting underway and is tentatively titled German Energy Policy in the Age of Oil and Atoms, 1945–2000. It explores the political economy of energy crises and transition, showing how the struggle to turn energy provision into a public good fundamentally shaped the development of Germany’s economy and democracy after 1945. It seeks to understand how an oil-poor yet highly industrial state managed the transition from coal, to oil, to (possibly) more renewable fuels. The research for this has been supported by a grant from the Institute for New Economic Thinking.



Stephen G. Gross is an assistant professor in the Department of History and the Center for European and Mediterranean Studies at NYU. After working for several years as an economist at the Bureau of Economic Analysis in Washington DC, he completed his PhD at UC Berkeley where he subsequently lectured with the International and Area Studies Program, teaching courses on political economy, economic history, and comparative European history. In his research Dr. Gross is interested in 20th century Germany, European unification, European and international political economy, energy policy, and international relations. His first book, Export Empire, will be published by Cambridge University Press in December 2015. He has also published on a variety of economic themes in German and European history in Central European History, Contemporary European History, German Politics and Society, and Eastern European Politics and Society, as well as in various book chapters. Dr. Gross's research has been supported by fellowships from the Institute for New Economic Thinking, the Fulbright Program, the Berlin Program for Advanced German and European Studies, and the Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst.



Institute for New Economic Thinking Research Fellowship 2015–2016; NYU Humanities Initiative Team Teaching Fellowship; DAAD postdoctoral research fellowship 2012; Berlin Program for Advanced German and European Studies 2009; Fellow - Northwestern Univ. Summer Institute on the Holocaust and Jewish Civilization—2009; Fulbright Research Fellowship 2008; Outstanding Graduate Student Instructor Award—2007; UC Berkeley Institute for European Studies Pre-dissertation Research Fellowship—2006; UC Berkeley Graduate Division Pre-dissertation Summer Fellowship—Summer 2006; UC Berkeley Max Kade Research Grant—Summer 2006; UC Berkeley Institute for European Studies Fellowship—2004–5



Selected Works:

Stephen G. Gross, "The Nazi Economy," in Shelley Baranowski, Armin Nolzen and Claus-Christian Szejnmann, A Companion to Nazi Germany (Oxford: Wilely-Blackwell, Forthcoming in 2016).

Stephen G. Gross, Export Empire: German Soft Power in Southeastern Europe, 1890–1945 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, forthcoming December 2015)

Stephen G. Gross, "Between Russia and the Atlantic: The Economics and Geopolitics of German Natural Gas, 1970–Present," under review at Central European History

Stephen G. Gross, "Gold, Debt, and the Quest for Monetary Order: The Legacy of the Nazi Campaign to Integrate Europe in 1940," under review at Contemporary European History

Stephen G. Gross, “Nazi Economic Expansion, Romanian Volksdeutsche, and the German-Romanian Chamber of Commerce, 1929–1941,” in Burckhard Olschowsky and Ingo Loose (eds.) Nationalsozialismus und Regionalbewusstsein im östlichen Europa. Ideologie – Machtausbau – Beharrung (Oldenbourg: de Gruyter, forthcoming November 2015)

“War Finance (German Empire),” in 1914-1918-Online: International Encyclopedia of the First World War, forthcoming in 2014.

Stephen G. Gross, "The German Economy and East-Central Europe: The Development of Intra-Industry Trade from Ostpolitik to the Present," forthcoming in German Politics and Society (Fall 2013).

Stephen. G. Gross and S. Chase Gummer, "Ghosts of the Habsburg Empire: Collapsing Currency Unions and Lessons for the Eurozone," in East European Politics and Societies (August 2013).

Contributor for “America,” in Responsible Market Economies: Principles and Foundations, eds. Ulrich van Suntum, Tobias Böhm, Jens Oelgemöller and Cordelius Ilgmann, Center for Applied Research Münster and the Bertelsmann Stiftung, forthcoming 2012.

“Selling Germany in Southeastern Europe: Economic Uncertainty, Commercial Information, and the Leipzig Trade Fair 1920–1940,” in Contemporary European History, 21/1 Feb. 2012, 19–39.

“Das Mitteleuropa-Institut in Dresden: Verknüpfung regionaler Wirtschaftinteressen mit deutscher Auslandskulturpolitik in der Zwischenkriegzeit,” in Carola Sachse (ed.) “Mitteleuropa” und “Südosteuropa” als Planungsraum. Wirtschafts- und kulturpolitische Expertisen im Zeitalter der Weltkriege (Göttingen: Wallstein Verlag, 2010).

“Confidence and Gold: German War Finance 1914–1918,” in Central European History 42 (2009), 223–52.

“History’s Lessons for the European Debt Crisis,” in the Berkeley Blog July 26, 2011.

“Germany,” in Booms and Busts: An Economics Encyclopedia (Golson Media, 2010).

“Why German Leaders are Reluctant to Pursue a US-Style Fiscal Stimulus,” in The History News Network, week of January 12, 2009.

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Updated on 08/27/2015